It was my 8th-grade history teacher, Mr. Danhausen, who started me on my life-long obsession with World War II.
It was my friend, Anthony Garrett, who provided me with a copy of his grandfather's journal.

Elwood Llewellin Garrett was an American businessman in Manila at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
This is his story, as he recorded it, of living under Japanese rule in an enemy-occupied foreign land.

April 24, 1942

There seems to be a great wave of optimism lately along the lines of rumors. Planes continue to bomb Japan and our forces are reportedly moving up from Australia, sweeping the Japs as they roll along. It is also rumored that our forces have landed on the southern tip of Luzon at a town named Legaspi. All last night we could hear a heavy movement of tanks and trucks moving northward, which according to the optimists is Japs retreating from the south. It does add up and maybe there is something to it. Who knows?

Here's a rich one! After being in camp for over three and one half months, yesterday I met a man by the name of Calvert, who received a letter from his wife in San Francisco on the last clipper to come to these parts, telling him all about meeting you and your mother and you coming out here. We had quite a little chat comparing notes, etc; and both look forward to having a big "bust" when you and his wife do come out here. The fact that both you and his wife just missed by bare inches, in getting caught in this mess gave us much in common to be grateful for. Every time I think how close you came to being caught, cold chills run up and down my spine. Mr. Calvert seems to be a very fine chap and a regular fellow. Will undoubtedly see more of him from now on. He is from San Francisco also so we get along O.K.

It is surprising, that although we are all cooped up here together, weeks go by with out seeing certain ones we know. Just this morning I met a fellow who I thought had been out on a pass as I had not seen him for some time, but he had been here all the time, same as I, and wondered whether I had been out. I have been thinking of trying to get out for a day to get some money and incidently a "snoot-full," but passes are hard to get so am not planning on it too keenly. Havn't had a drink in almost four months so guess I can get along without it for a little while longer.

April 21, 1942

The rumors are "hot" today. We have it that K.G.E.I. and also Japan radio has broadcast that Japan has been bombed two days in succession causing heavy damage to military factories and etc; Japan says that only hospitals and residences were bombed. This remark is naturally to be expected but the fact that Japan admits being bombed is good news.

Another one from Australia is that New Guinea has been cleaned up of Japs and that our forces are now in Java, British Borneo and Mindanao (Southern Philippines) mopping up there, and headed for Manila.

There is more air activity today than we have seen for the past week, which is a pretty good sign that something has stirred them up. Since they (Japs) have taken Bataan, things have been rather quiet with the exception of Sunday evening we heard a lot of what was thought to be heavy artillery not far from camp. Nobody seems to know what it was all about and not even a good rumor has come out of it yet.

April 18, 1942*

There has not been much doing for the past few days, not even a good rumor to make note of. However, this morning shows signs of renewed war activities and there are a number of Jap planes overhead, flying high and in the direction of Corregidor. The paper says Corregidor is weakening and they expect it’s fall any time now.

It is also reported that there is a shake-up in the U.S. Cabinet and Hull, Knox, Stimson and others are being kicked out and are responsible for the heavy American losses. It would be interesting to know if there is any truth in this report. Personally, I doubt it. As a matter of fact I don’t believe a damned thing I hear these days.

Probably the reason for inactivity during the past few days is the heat wave we have been going through, which just about reduces one to a mere grease spot. Yesterday it was 101.5’ and that is about as hot as it ever gets in these parts.

The air raids by our boys on Sunday and Monday are the last we have heard of so guess the heat has absorbed their ambition too. We learn that these two raids were made by flying fortresses from Australia and all returned to their base except one which developed engine trouble near Australia; the crew bailed out and were rescued but the plane was lost. There is plenty of work to be done here and the sooner they get started, the better we’ll like it. Stop me if you have heard that last phrase before. The European news is all good; the Russians are going strong and the collapse of Germany is predicted to take place within 45 days. I hope this is true, for if they do, the situation out here will be changed considerably. Information reaches us this morning that General McArthur made a speech over the radio from Australia that the Philippines were the first objective and that they intended going to work in a big way in the very near future. We have heard this several times before but hope they really mean it this time. This camp life is getting rather monotonous.

Although the food we get on the line is very meager and not too good, the Japs seem to think we are eating too well so commencing today they have taken over the Red Cross bodega and kitchen and intend trying to starve us. This morning we had our usual allotment of cracked wheat and a liquid called coffee, same as before, so will wait for tonights meal and we’ll know more about it. The Japs have taken all the canned and powdered milk to be found, for their injured leaving the Red Cross only a very small supply to take care of babies bare requirements for a short time. When this is gone we’ll have to figure out a new one some way. We hear from people on the outside that they are using a condensed cocoanut milk and getting by, so as long as the cocoanuts hold out we will be O.K. I never realized before how important a part milk is to war time rations, not only for infants but adults.

As I said before, there are all kinds of people in this camp; entertainers, professional galblers, business executives, newspaper men, and just about any lines you can think of. The result of this conglamoration is that we have a weekly newspaper called the "Internews" which really has no news at all except goings on in camp. Not much of a paper but am attaching a copy to this so you can see for yourself.

Every Saturday night the entertainers from the various night clubs (now interned) put on a show in the patio of the Main building. I never was much on this even when half “oiled” and don’t believe I could sit through one of their performances stone sober, so have not bothered to go to one of their shows since we have been locked up. Others say they are pretty good, so will have to take their word for it. Just about every one in camp goes to these shows which leaves things exceptionally quiet in our building so I stay here and enjoy the quiet much more than I would the show.

The young fellows in camp have organized a number of softball teams and put on a game most every morning and afternoon. Not being particularly interested I do not play but do spend quite a little time in the bleachers giving the boys the ol’ “razzberry” when they fumble. They all take it in good spirit and makes one forget their present plight. They also have basket ball, volley-ball and horse shoes. The latter is about my speed and I take my daily work-out this way. An old mans’ game, but then, I’m getting no younger fast, and can work up a good sweat, which is not hard to do these days, so that is all that is necessary.

*Interestingly, this is also the same day of the famous ‘Doolittle Raid.’

April 15, 1942

Was exceptionally busy yesterday repairing cots, the weeks wash and etc, was rather tired so had a siesta for a change.

About the only item of note was that on Monday afternoon around 5:00 PM we heard a lot more bombing, which, according to rumor, was three alcohol fuel plants blown up by our planes. The paper says nothing about this although reports persistantly come in to this effect. For two days in a row we have heard bombing which is music to our ears. Yesterday we heard none, guess the boys were taking a rest. Needless to say that we are all hoping for a little more music today.

Todays paper carries the headlines that the big guns of Corregidor have been demolished by heavy Jap bombing. This is supposed to be the day the Jap army promised to make their Emporer a present of Corregidor. As long as we have a plane left in these parts I doubt if they will ever make it for Corregidor is in the same class as Malta. They'll never get it. Todays paper also shows pictures of American and Filipino troops being searched by Japs after their surrender at Bataan. Rumor has it that this is only the east flank that surrendered and that heavy fighting is still going on over there on other fronts.

Cebu, second largest city in the islands and reported one of our bases of the south, is reported to have been taken over by the Japs after being completely wiped out by fire. We are supposed to have sunk a number of their ships in the attempted landings and the few that did land were promptly annihalated. This is the kind of stuff we get all day long and each side swears it is from the one and only authentic source.

Yesterday we had some tenderloin steaks sent in which is the first real meat we have had since being in here, and did we go for it. I had almost forgotten what meat tasted like. Every once in a while we get together and talk about our favorite dish to see who can make the others mouth water for the real chow. We have not done too badly up to now but expect that the worst is yet to come at the rate things are going.

April 13, 1942

The rumors sure came in hot and heavy last night about yesterdays bombing. Some said it was the Japs blowing up houses to make way for a new air field. Others said it was a Jap plane that developed motor trouble and had to unload her bombs and others said it was from our planes bombing Nichols Field. The optimists were right this time for the Jap paper this morning confirms that it was from our planes but that no military damage was done. Rumor has it that our planes bombed and caused considerable damage at Nichols Field scoring direct hits on the repair hangar, killing two hundred Japs and Filipinos. It sure is good to know that we do have a plane or two around these parts. We heard planes flying around right after the bombing but they were so high they could not be seen. That is the first bit of encouragement we have had in quite some time and of course, all are hoping that this is just the beginning.

The news about the fall of Bataan appears to be a confirmed fact for todays papers shows pictures of General King talking to Japanese command arranging for a surrender. It seems incredible that the U.S. should have to surrender even Bataan to Japan, but guess they got the jump on us in the first blow and took a lot of the wind out of our sails from which it is taking us some time to recover. The Japs now claim they expect the fall of Corregidor by the fifteenth and unless we get reinforcements and in a big way, I don't see how they can possibly hold out much longer. This is the last stronghold the U.S. forces have here and it seems a crime that it be permitted to fall into Jap control. It seems that the powers that be, in Washington, will have a lot to answer for after this is all over. Guess we'll be here for a long while yet, so have taken a new lease on life and settled down for the rainy season which should be along most any time now. It has been hotter than hades lately; yesterday 98.2'. In order to write this I have a towel around my arm to hold the flow of perspiration and what I mean, it's hot! And that's no rumor! I don't know whether it's the heat or bad news lately but things are very quiet in camp and from the looks on some of the faces, one would almost think it was the end of everything. Maybe it is and I haven't got sense enough to realize it but I can still smile and look forward to some day reading the history of this war to my kids in a cozy little farm house some where in sunny California. How does that strike you? Or am i bragging again?

We are all keeping in good health despite congested conditions and meager chow. Every so often some one in our camp gets laid up for a day or so but nothing serious so we feel most fortunate.

About half the men in camp have raised a beard, too lazy to shave, and this "joint" gives the appearance of a convention of the "House of David." I had a mustachio for two months but shaved it off soon as I proved to myself I was still a man and not a mouse.

April 12, 1942

I know you must be worried, not hearing from me for so long. If I could only be granted one wish, it would be that you be notified that I am still O.K. Did you ever receive any word through the Red Cross?

The rumor still persists that Bataan has fallen and there seems to be every indication that this is true. Nine civilians who fled to Bataan on Janaury first to escape the Japs, came in to camp yesterday afternoon and give quite an account of goings-on over there. They said they had been living in a cave in the mountains all this time. The Japs have been continually bombing and shelling our positions; that our forces had received no reinforcements and were on starvation rations. They had seen only two American planes since January first. From this it really looks like we have been deserted completely. I can not understand it; we learn of raids on Australia and all other places being repulsed by American pilots and planes yet we do not have any here where it seems they are needed most. Four months have passed since this war started and not the slightest signs of reinforcements have arrived. Todays paper says that our President F.D.R. has broadcast that it is impossible to send aid to the Philippines because the Japanese navy has control of this part of the Pacific. Also that F.D.R. has given General King full authority to make the best surrender terms possible. These people that came in yesterday say that they saw thousands of our boys that had been taken prisoners marching along the road as they were being brought in. Try as I might, I can not see anything particularly optimistic in the present picture of conditions. Although there is the other side or school of thought, who never say die and stick to their story that these people who have come in yesterday, being stuck in a cave all this time, know no more than we or probably less and that their evacuation from Bataan was part of a twenty four hour truce that was arranged between the Japs and American troops to bury their dead and evacuate all civilians in this area. We heard this several days ago and it is not at all unlikely as I can well imagine the stench of dead bodies must be terrible in this hot climate. So Bataan may still be in our hands for all I know. It's a fifty fifty bet as I see it.

We have just received another notice from the boss of this camp that we can send a note home and I have sent one to you which I hope you may soon receive. It is a sterotyped note but at least lets you know all is well so far.

This morning we heard a heavy bombing which seemed to come from the direction of Nichols Field which was music to our ears as we all wanted to believe that it came from our flying fortresses. We have not yet heard definitely what it was but as there are a few out on passes today, we will probably hear about it at tonights session.

April 11, 1942

Every day now seems to be the anniversary of something or other. Four months ago today was the last time we saw an American plane over these parts. What a grand and glorious feeling it will be the next time we see one. Some times I wonder.

The news has been bad for the past few days. Apparently there was something to the rumor of the 9th; that the Japs had broken through our Bataan lines for we have been getting in reports, supposedly from K.G.E.I. which confirms this. This Jap paper that we get in camp and is the only paper in Manila, carries large headlines that Bataan has fallen and they have taken many of our boys as prisoners. This is the worst news we have received since being in camp, and if I have said before that most of the people here had been down in the dumps, well, these past two days are indescribable. Lower than low.

There are two schools of thought in camp: the defeatist who believe that the U.S. has let the Philippines down miserably, and the born optimists who believe all these rumors are just poor propaganda designed to break our moral. There is much to be said on both sides and I'm not sure just on what side I should be classed. While I feel positive we are not licked by a heluva-long-shot, it is discouraging never to see or hear any of our planes over-head and always getting in bad news. At the same time we know that our own side is not beyond spreading propaganda too, because right up until January first when our forces retreated and left Manila, we were informed that our lines were holding and the situation was well in hand. I've given up trying to figure it out as long as I'm stuck in here and can not move. I try to take a little of each side as it suits my fancy and let it go at that. Todays supposed transcripts of K.G.E.I.'s last nights broadcast confirms the fall of Bataan while another says it is all false and that the other broadcast was from Japan and not K.G.E.I. Now you figure it out! In the meantime I'm just sitting here patiently waiting for something to happen.

I have just received word through a friend of mine who was out on a pass due to his mother passing away, that the Japs have not yet touched my apartment and everything is in tact. They have sealed the building so guess that means they are reserving this till a little later on when they have more time. They have taken over and are living in all the apartments with elevators; our building has none and I live on the top or fourth floor, which has probably kept them out. Am hoping the luck holds for awhile longer so that I may see my happy home once more for I have many little things there that I would like to save.

April 9, 1942

Yesterday completed the fourth month of war in these parts and today completes our third month in a concentration camp. Three months gone to hell; we wonder how many more are ahead of us. Not many, I hope, for personally I've had a plenty and am getting fed up. While we do practically nothing but loaf around all day this is really no rest or vacation. With the rumbling of distant gun fire, bombing and enemy planes over head a great deal of the time, it just keeps one on edge and it it impossible to relax and enjoy this lay-off from business. I never was very good at loafing even when on a vacation, as you know, so you might imagine this is not much fun.

Today the rumors are very good again. It is reported that our lines in Bataan have been closed and a considerable number of Japs had been slaughtered in the bargain. Also that our Air force has bombed hell out of the principal Jap Air base at Apari, the northern most tip of this island of Luzon. Third, that our offensive has commenced in Mindanao, (to the south of us) with heavy damage to the enemy. There are, of course, the usual run of absolutely rediculous rumors not worth mentioning. We will probably be having all kinds of them at tonights session.

Last night, or rather early this morning at 12:45 A.M. we experienced one of the heaviest earthquakes we have had in a good long time. It awakened me so it must have been a good one. A near panic was all but created when every one tried to get out of the building at the same time. It seemed to last for a full minute or more and was so strong it was difficult to keep one footing while it was going on. This is a cheaply constructed building and with 650 men stacked in like cord wood, it was no place for yours truly and I was out of the building in nothing flat. They say there was hell to pay in the main building where all the women and kids were sleeping. It seems that all the elements were celebrating last night for there was an exceptional amount of heat lightning on all sides of us, lighting the whole sky. We could hear and feel the big guns at Corregidor going off most all night and could see the reflection of the powerful search-lights. Guess the Japs were attempting another landing. From all reports, their losses in attempted landings have been staggering, so when we do hear all this, it makes us feel good to know that another few thousand Japs are going to feed the sharks.

We have been having slight tremblors all day long. Another good shake has just caused some excitement and I guess that ends our siesta as there is a lot of chatter going on out in the halls and every one is awake in our room which means the beginning of a little poker session, more tomorrow.

April 8, 1942

News has again been scarce for the past few days up till this morning and now it comes in a plenty and all bad. It is reported that the Japs have broke through our first lines of defense at Bataan and the situation is very critical for our side. This is supposed to have been broadcast over the only free radio station (free to Japs) in these islands, 'Voice of Freedom' and is considered authentic. This contradicts all previous rumors we have been getting in about the arrival of reinforcements at various points in the islands.

While we are naturally very impatient, being cooped up here in camp, if there is any truth in the above rumor, it rather looks like Uncle Sam has let us down, for there certainly has been sufficient time elapsed to get something over here anyway. There is undoubtedly a lot of things we don't know about what is going on, so best not form any opinion one way or the other. However, such news is very depressing to say the least. Most every ones nerves are on edge this morning and I have seen several scraps among the men. It happens every time. So much for that; we'll try a little more about camp life.

There is not much work to be done around camp anymore, sanitary improvements have been completed as far as possible, the camp is fairly well cleaned, so there is naught left to do but loaf around all day, which makes for a terribly long day. A bunch of fellows in our room have a little poker game every day, losses payable when we get out, which helps to kill some of the time. We use a set of home-made chips, similar to those used for money in the game of Mah Jong, and get along quite OK except that at the present standing I am not doing so well. However, it's on the cuff, so what!

Money is becoming more scarce and we are all in a bad way as every one of us is "broke." Fortunately our Filipino friends have not forgotten us and send us in food and smokes fairly regularly. Several local banks have opened but unfortunately none of us had accounts with them. We hear that it would not have done us any good any way, as all our accounts are frozen by the Japs. All in all, at the moment, the picture of conditions is not too bright as we see it, but here's hoping something breaks in the near future.

Several days ago the rumor was running strong that Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki were heavily bombed again by our forces and that the Japs were ready to declare Manila an open city in exchange for Tokio. Apparently all this was just another rumor for we have received no confirmation of it and we are still here. And that's no rumor!!

April 5, 1942 - Easter Sunday

Things have been rather quiet again for the past few days, not even any good rumors worth writing down except for last nights session. Just for the fun of it you might check up on the date of this one and see if our grape-vine is working.

It is reported that Allied troops have landed in France in an effort to split the German power before their contemplated spring invasion of England. Russia appears to be going strong and it is expected that they (Russia) will make a seperate peace with Germany. Another side is that Germany is expected to collapse within sixty days from date. It is also reported that food riots are becoming serious and that there is plenty of internal trouble in Germany. All this, of course, looks good for our side but as I have heard so many rumors both pro and con that have never materialized, I take no stock in any of them and just live from day to day, hoping for the best. It would be interesting to know if there is anything to this.

Last night there was another heavy seige of bombing and artillery, same as that mentioned under date of April first, which was probably another attempted landing on Corregidor. It is reported that the attack on the first was made by barges heavily loaded with men and supplies, all of which were completely annihalated by our forces from Corregidor. It is reported that they also attempted a landing at Bataan, behind our lines and this was likewise repulsed with heavy losses.

Our friends on the outside sent us in an exceptionally good meal today, this being Easter, the best we have had in some time; soup, roast chicken and some sort of frozen desert. It was a real treat.

In some ways this concentration camp life has been a real education, for it has afforded a great opportunity to study us Americans and other nationals in general, at a close range, and a lot of your so-called friends. Believe me, I have learned plenty although hardly worth writing about as it would not make for pleasant reading. I have also made several new friends who have really prooven themselves as friends, so consider myself quite fortunate considering all things.

As I mentioned before, foreign food stuffs and etc; are fast disappearing from the markets and we are getting back to native life and chow, even to smokes. We have been smoking native cigarettes for the past two months and like them. Every so often some one gets in states cigarettes and they are so different I don't even care for them now. It is just as well for we will be smoking "dhobies" for sometime to come.

To alleviate the food situation, we have plowed up by hand, about three acres of ground and have planted vegetables of all kinds. While I am hoping we are not still here to reap the harvest, it is a good idea anyway.

The morale of camp seems pretty good today; many of them are dressed up in their Sunday-go-to-meetin' clothes, neckties and everything, parading around the grounds to show off. It's great, the spirit of us Americans! I believe a great many of the extremely high optomistic rumors are started by the Japanese High Command so that when they do not come true, they expect we will crack up in spirit. We have had all sorts of rumors such as, all Japs were evacuating Manila and we would be out in a day or two; or the Japs were asking for peace; fifty percent of their navy is no more, and all such stuff. While we have had many let-downs almost enough to crack the best, we are still betting on Uncle Sam to save the day and teach these devils a lesson they will never forget. While they have taken the whole world by surprise and have taken everything they started out for, I can't see how they can possibly expect to hold it for any length of time. From all reports, they don't seem to know what to do after they do take a city. About all they have done in Manila is to loot all our homes, abuse the residents and spread a lot of worthless currency. There is no business going on, so as far as I can see they have accomplished very little other than causing destruction.

A flight of eighteen bombers have just gone overhead; they were flying so high it was impossible to say whether they were ours or not, but rumors are running high that we now have planes here so we like to think that they were ours. At least they went over without dropping any "eggs" on us so guess there is no harm is believing. Whenever any planes go over, most everyone runs out of the building, hoping to see what we have all been waiting for so long. It will be one grand and glorious day when it does come, for this is worse than being in a jail. When one is in jail, they know or have some idea when they can expect to get out, but with us it is quite different.

Directly across the hall from our room is a room full of Poles, who are not too particular about personal cleanliness and consistantly jabber away all day and far into the night. At times they get on ones nerves and I could cheerfully slaughter the whole lot. But such is life!

The latest rumor along the lines of exchanging diplomats and citizens is supposed to take place on April 20th; when a Jap ship leaves the Philippines for Mozambique, South Africa, where the swap is to be made. Applications are now supposed to be presented but it looks "fishy" to me so intend staying right here, rather than take that chance. A number of people have been reported to have put in their applications but I doubt if they will ever get on their way. Probably another Jap rumor, originated for the purpose of giving us another let-down but I again doubt if it will have the desired effect.

Siesta hour is over and the usual chatter is going strong so will sign off for a while until the spirit moves me again or something of interest comes to mind. We have a pretty good gang in this room and most every one can take a little "ribbing" now and then, which helps to keep things going. At the moment I seem to be in for it with none too flattering remarks so -------

April 1, 1942

We're still here and that's no foolin' either. A few April fool pranks were played on various ones in camp this morning, so we do have our fun along with it all.

As is the usual custom every evening after curfew, we sit out in front of the building and exchange rumors of the day. Last nite they were all bad for our side so naturally most everyone is in low spirits today. It is reported that our forces in Bataan are suffering heavy losses the past few days due to a big push the Japs are putting on. There has been considerable air activity again and it seems that planes are always droning over head in the direction of Corregidor and Bataan.

Last nite from 8:00 to 9:00 PM there seemed to be heavy bombing going on about twenty miles or so away from us. We could also hear the distant rumbling of what might have been heavy artillery. So far today no rumors have come in about what it was. We will probably get them at the session this evening and expect that there will be some fantastic stories among them.

Another wave of abuses as practiced by the Japs on civilians outside has come in from various sources and as they sound very likely, I record them here.

Apparently the devils are following their cowardly methods by picking on women and old men. Many cases are reported of men and women being slapped down for not bowing to the Jap sentries. If the happen to have packages in their arms, same are torn open and the contents strewn over the street. This has happened to both Americans out on pass, and Filipinos alike.

There was a case here in camp this morning of a Chinaman who was bringing the padres some supplies; the Jap sentries at the gate took the stuff and said it could not be delivered. When he asked for a receipt from the sentry so that he could show his boss, the sentries beat him up un-mercifully then let the poor devil lay there until he could gain enough strength to walk away.

It makes my blood boil when I hear of these things and know I can do nothing about it. But every dog has his day and I'm looking forward to it "con mucho gusto." My principal concern now is in getting out of this camp right side up. Although concentration camps have never been known to be bombed, you can never tell what these devils will do. I am hoping that when our boys come in they come in a hurry and leave them no chance to do any dirty work. Most every one seems to think that when they are driven out of Manila, they will destroy the power and water supply, which is not at all unlikely, for I wouldn't put anything passed them.

This morning we had a little spark of encouragement when a plane with an entirely different sounding motor went over head, hell bent for leather, from the sound. It was flying so high in the clouds we could not see it. Most everyone ran out to see and seemed to agree that it must have been an American plane. Things like that buck up the moral and now you may even see a smile once in a while.

March 31, 1942

There has not been anything of note to write about since my last entry. The rumors go up and down, likewise the moral of the camp, but lately, or rather the past few days have been very good for our side, both locally and in Europe.

One of the men in our room returned to camp yesterday after being out on a pass for two weeks to take care of a sick wife and brings many stories of the atrocities being committed by the Japs to the Filipinos. As I feel quite sure of the authenticity, I make record of them here for future posterity.

A neighbor of this fellow was caught listening in on a short wave radio to KGEI by a Jap sentry and was taken down to headquarters for questioning. After three days he returned home, nearly dead, with the skin having been peeled off his back so that it was raw and his hands, face and feet burned by hot irons. This seems to be Japan's idea of the good neighbor policy.

Another case of which we witnessed was that of a Filipino who had been caught looting and was shot in the arm. The sentry caught him, pulled a sack over his head and hung him from a tree by the feet with his head in a bucket of water until he had drowned. They then left him laying there as a lesson to all who see.

The most common punishment for petty offenses is to strip them and tie them to a tree all day in the hot sun. It is reported that this has been done to women as well as men. Rape, is of course, a common occurrence from the age of ten and up. There are undoubtedly thousands of like cases going on every day; and then they expect the Filipinos to co-operate with them to fight against the U.S.A. While there may be a few weak kneed natives who will swing over to the other side, ninety nine percent of them are death against the Japs to the very end and from all reports that reach us, they are doing a mighty good job of it too. It is reported that one hundred and seventy five thousand Japs have been slaughtered in the Philippine campaign up to March 15th. We have heard no figures on our losses.

March 25, 1942

The rumors are all bad today so most everyone is "down in the dumps" and crabby as hell. This is a great life but am afraid a lot of them are weakening. Todays rumor is that our lines in Bataan suffered heavy losses and Corregidor took a terrible bombing yesterday, with the Japs loosing only four planes.

There are always Jap guards patroling the grounds with bayonets set, which is, I suppose to make an impression on us and to let us know they are the victors. They also have a machine gun mounted at the gate, the looks of which I do not particularly care for. I wonder how the Japs interned in the states are being treated. I hope they get the same treatment we get here; that is, locking them up and having them depend on friends outside to bring them food. According to international law, the Japs are supposed to feed us but they have not and if it were not for our Filipino friends we would have starved long ago.

This just about brings us up to date on things in general so from now on will try to keep it so.

I got weighed today and am 168 pounds or a loss of 27 pounds since the beginning of this mess and the last time we were together all my clothes fit like a tent and you would hardly recognize this streamline figure, of which I am quite proud. This is probably due to poor chow, no drinks and nerves, however, am feeling fine otherwise and none the worse for wear and tare.

March 24, 1942

Several days have passed since my last entry, during which time I have been keeping busy around camp, digging ditches and the like, trying to keep out of trouble. Apparently there is no change in our military position for we are still here and there continues considerable air activity, all Jap.

There is some talk about the exchange of diplomats and civilians between Japan and the U.S. but so far nothing definite. Midway or Wake Island was named as the trading post, either of which would suit me fine for I feel I could almost walk home from there, knowing I would be seeing you at the end of the trip.

Mosquitoes have always been a damned nuisance in the tropics but it seems that they have all congregated right here at this camp for some sort of a convention. This is all filled in ground of old garbage and what-not, which does not help out the situation. We are allowed to sit out in front of the building until 11:00 PM but if there is no breeze, the mosquitoes will eat you alive, so we usually retire early, under the net, to get away from them. The curfew hour is 7:45 PM when everyone must go to their respective rooms and report in, so that they can check up that no one has escaped during the day.

I have met several young fellows in here that I did not know before, who are pretty good scouts. We usually have a little rummy game every night to kill the long evenings and talk about the "binge" we are going on as soon as we get out of this dump. It has been more than ten weeks since I've had a drink so you can imagine that I am rather dry and in a bad way. There will probably be plenty of excitement in town after we get out of here and for some time to come, so it is well that I am writing this now, for all this camp life will soon fade out of ones memory and it would be a job to write even one page about it after it's all over.

Rumors still persist that we have had all sorts of reinforcements out this way but I doubt it, for I have yet to see any of our ships flying over. About 75 Jap planes just flew over camp in the direction of Bataan, which looks like our lines are in for a heavy attack. Every time I see those son-of-a-guns flying over with no opposition and realize that we are at their mercy, it is enough to drive one "screwey." And as long as we see those devils flying above us, we know it will be some time yet before we get out of here. Personally, I doubt if we will be out before the first of June, if then.

March 19, 1942

Not much new or startling today although rumor has it that our big offensive is on and of course we are all hoping to get out of here soon. There has been considerable air activity lately which to me is a good sign that there is really something stirring and the Japs are having something to worry about. Things have been very quiet up to the past few days but now it seems that there are always planes droning over head. And that's no rumor!

You probably wonder why I use the word "rumor" so often, and you will hear a lot more before this is finished, so had better clarify the situation. Incidently we just live on rumors; when they are good, every one is feeling fine and when they are bad, every one is crabby as hell and ready to scrap at the drop of a hat. We are not permitted to contact anyone on the outside, have no radios in here and the only bit of news we are supposed to be getting is a daily Japanese propaganda sheet that is so poorly written it is almost comical. However, by some hook or crook we do get in information which is most always reported to have been heard over station KGEI, San Francisco, or the British Broadcasting, London. When anyone inside here gets in a transcript of these broadcasts, it circulates around from mouth to mouth and by the time it passes through three or four, you would never recognize it as the same story. When news is scarce, I believe a lot of the rumors are originated right here, with absolutely no grounds what-ever. Everyone is hungry for news and just eat up these rumors, hook, line and sinker, no matter how wild they may be. They seem to make one feel good and keep the moral up with no particular harm done, so guess it is all for the best. If I ever get this caught up to date I intend keeping a record of all these rumors that come in and maybe some day check up on them and see how many, if any, have any truth in them. Just something to kill time and test our bamboo telegraph system.

Conditions became so crowded at the gymnasium as they brought in more and more men from the provinces, we were moved in to the Catholic sisters home where we have a little more room and much better toilet facilities. In here there are only twenty to a room and ventilation greatly improved. We have had to build make-shift showers and washing trays outside the building otherwise this is not a bad set-up at all for a concentration camp. I have talked to refugees from European concentration camps and compared to them, we are really doing quite well. However, I am getting fed up with this life and things can not happen any too soon to suit me.

This is supposed to be the hot season although it has been quite comfortable. We have built ourselves a shanty out on the so-called campus, made from the scraps of everything we could find and this is home for eight of us, at present. With everyones nerves more or less on edge, it is not a very agreeable household, so I spend most of the time keeping clear of arguments by reading, writing and working around camp, only going to the shanty for our noon day meal. While a great many of the people have to get along on what is put out on the bread line alone, we are still getting in supplies and manage to have at least one good meal a day.
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